UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL
According to the Charter of the United Nations (UN Charter), the Security Council has the primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security. Being one of the most powerful international decision-making bodies, the SC is the only UN organ authorized to adopt legally binding resolutions. Consequently, all UN Member States are obligated to comply with Council decisions. The Council has a broad spectrum of powers, including the authorization of collective military actions, which it can employ to protect international peace.
The Council consists out of fifteen members, five of which are permanent members, known as the P5: the French Republic, the People’s Republic of China, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The Security Council also includes ten non-permanent members, which are elected by the General Assembly for a two-year term. Each member of the SC has one vote. Additionally, the permanent members have a right to veto any adopted resolution either in part or entirely.
As a delegate, you are expected to defend your national policies on the given topic, while bargaining and constructing alliances in an attempt to bring stability to the threatened world.
- French Republic - experienced delegate
- People’s Republic of China - experienced delegate
- Russian Federation - experienced delegate
- United Kingdom - experienced delegate
- United States of America - experienced delegate
- Israel (observer) - experienced delegate
- Palestine (observer) - experienced delegate
TOPIC: ISRAELI-PALESTINIAN CONFLICT
COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
The Council of the European Union is one of the main decision-making bodies which coordinates European countries` policies, adopts new laws, develops common foreign and security agenda and sets annual EU budget. It expresses the voices of the EU member states. Each country sends minister as a representative, which is responsible for policy area that will be discussed during the session. Therefore meetings of the Council of the EU can run in 10 different configurations: agriculture and fisheries; competitiveness; economic and financial affairs, education, youth, culture and sport; employment, social policy and consumer affairs; environment; foreign affairs; general affairs; justice and home affairs; transport, telecommunications and energy.
The Council of the EU resolves important issues such as refugee crisis, fight with terrorism, Eastern Europe relationships, etc. The Council of the EU is a good platform for countries to represent their interests, to discuss current problems and potential threats and to design the laws in a way that they advantage their governments. All decisions must have qualified majority (55% of countries and 65% of the EU population) to be passed. There is possibility to block decision if at least 4 countries (representing 35% of total population of the EU) are against the proposed law. Sensitive topics including foreign policy require unanimous vote. All decisions are discussed with the European Parliament and are based on proposals of the European Commission.
As a minister at NU MUN conference, you will defend political interests of your national government regarding the homegrown terrorism. You will debate with other 27 ministers and will try to come up with common solutions which will be able to resolve this problem.
TOPIC: HOMEGROWN TERRORISM
Today terrorism poses a threat to all the people and the States of the world, fostering political and social instability. The European Union, allowing the free movement of goods, people, and resources, is an environment in which terrorist organizations may operate freely. For this reason, the EU is actively researching operative solutions to prevent terrorist attacks against its citizens. However, the nature of recent attacks as well as their frequency signals that conventional strategies are no more effective and new approach should be taken. Homegrown terrorism is a particularly sensitive issue as it involves the EU citizens themselves who attack, damage or destabilize their own or another country. This particular phenomenon poses new challenges for the security forces of each single State, because it is indeed more difficult to monitor common citizens instead of focusing all the attention on external menaces that may come from foreign terrorists.
UNITED NATIONS HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL
The United Nations Human Rights Council was established in 2006, as a replacement to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights, and serves as a standing body and the subsidiary body of the General Assembly. The Council functions as the United Nation’s main platform for dialogue and cooperation on human rights, and touches upon issues concerning the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, LGBT rights, women’s rights, and rights to sanitation, housing, security, and culture. It seeks to help member states meet their human rights obligations via dialogue, capacity building, and technical assistance, and also makes recommendations to the General Assembly concerning the development of international law in the field of human rights.
The Council consists of 47 members, and the distribution of seats is in accordance with equitable geographical representation of all members, including 13 from the African Group, 13 from the Asian Group, 6 from the Eastern European Group, 8 from the Latin American and Caribbean Group, and 7 form the Western European and Other States Group.
Delegates of all abilities are welcome, as the United Nations Human Rights Council is designed for both novice and experienced delegates alike. As a delegate, you are expected to come up with the solution that would protect fundamental human rights that are often in danger.
TOPIC: HUMAN RIGHTS IN KASHMIR REGION
Kashmir conflict is one of the most disputed territorial issues primarily between India and Pakistan that started in 1947. Once the British colonial rule had come to an end in the region, both Pakistan and India started to claim the right over the territory of Kashmir, however, no side was willing to come to a compromise and succumb the land. Gradually, what started as the territorial controversy turned out to be the epicentre of human rights violations with frequent cases of abuses, murders, rapes and tortures. The syndrome of “dead eyes” caused by the practice of using pellet guns on protesters by India and resulting in serious eye injuries or total loss of eyesight has become one of the most outrageous violations of this year. Therefore, it becomes of a great importance to attract the attention of international community to gravity and significance of the Kashmir conflict. Particularly, UN Human Rights Council is to play a crucial role in mediating the situation and providing effective and result-oriented recommendations for the involved countries in terms of human rights. The ultimate goal is to grant people in the regions of military tensions safer lives.